In a world increasingly dominated by visual sensation, our understanding of the role and influence of comics and cartoon humor in popular culture has become essential. This book offers a critical and cognitive focus that captures the changing fortunes of Catalan humour production against the shifting political landscape in the period 1898-1982. It considers how Catalan satire has been influenced by periods of relative calm as well as censorship, violence, war and dictatorship, and among its key features is its presentation of a continued cartooning tradition that was not ended by the installation of the Franco dictatorship, but which rather continued in a number of adapted forms, playing its own role in the evolution of the period. Thus, as well as introducing the most representative cartoonists and publications, the Catalan example is used to explore broader aspects of this complex communication form, opening new avenues for cultural, historical and socio-political research.
Reflexive Cartography addresses the adaptation of cartography, including its digital forms (GIS, WebGIS, PPGIS), to the changing needs of society, and outlines the experimental context aimed at mapping a topological space. Using rigorous scientific analysis based on statement consistency, relevance of the proposals, and model accessibility, it charts the transition from topographical maps created by state agencies to open mapping produced by citizens.
Adopting semiotic theory to uncover the complex communicative mechanisms of maps and to investigate their ability to produce their own messages and new perspectives,Reflexive Cartography outlines a shift in our way of conceptualizing maps: from a plastic metaphor of reality, as they are generally considered, to solid tools that play the role of agents, assisting citizens as they think and plan their own living place and make sense of the current world.
Who, What, When, Where and How to Start a Day Care Center There is a moment when in your mind you cross the line between dreaming of running your own day care center and actually seeing it as a reality in your future. When you make that transition, all of a sudden, the details of what it will take to both bring a day care into existence and to operate it day in and day out and make it a success begin to become a reality to you as well. One way of putting some organization around your planning is to use the old four Ws and an H system where in you just ask yourself five basic questions about what it will take to start and operate your own daycare. And those five questions are who, what, when, where and how. 1. Who will be your customers? In Field of Dreams, the voice told Kevin Costner, "If you build it, they will come." But you need more specifics before starting your day care. So you have to understand where you are going to get your first customers and then how you will continue to build your day care by getting new families. Start at your "dream" of a day care and in that vision of taking care of children for a living. Where did the kids come from in that vision? You should have this question answered and have a identifiable target market pinpointed before you buy the first crib or swing set for your day care. You need to know there is a real need for what you do. Moreover, the people who are going to finance your dream must know this or they wont give you the money. 2. What will your day care look like when it is a reality? This is more than just day dreaming because you need to have a feel for the size of the day care center, for the types of things that will happen in your day care all day and for the way it is decorated and equipped. Before you develop your budget of how much money to ask the bank for before you actually start changing your day care from a dream into a reality, you must have a detailed list of the things you will need, the remolding steps you must take on a new facility to transform it into a day care and how much each of those things will cost. 3. When will you open the day care? Along with putting some real detail to what will be in your day care, the schedule of events between now and when the doors open is important. A schedule is more than just a time frame with deadlines to hit. It is also a way of laying out in enough detail that you can get started, the work that must be done and the order it must be done in before you can move forward with your development plan. Building your plan from the general milestones to the specific tasks is how you go about creating a time frame for success that is realistic and complete. 4. Where will you locate your day care? You may be able to see the building where your day care will exist in your mind's eye but you need more than that to actually get your plan off the ground. You will need to know first what you need in terms of a physical facility and second, what facilities are available in your market area and what are their costs. The first part you can hammer out in your office with a pen and paper designing the layout and size of your future day care. The second part means getting out there and looking at buildings and talking to leasing agents. This is the footwork of starting your day care and it is important footwork for sure. 5. How do you get started? Guess what? You have already started. By taking these general questions, now just start adding the detail to each question. Before you know it you will have a budget, a schedule and a project plan for getting from the dream stage to that day you cut the ribbon and invite the first group of day care kiddos in to enjoy what you have to offer. And that day will make all this hard work worth the effort.
Policymakers around the world are increasingly concerned about the likely impact of climate change and environmental degradation on the movement of people. This book takes a hard look at the existing evidence available to policymakers in different regions of the world. How much do we really know about the impact of environmental change on migration? How will different regions of the world be affected in the future? Is there evidence to show that migration can help countries adapt to environmental change ? What types of research have been conducted, how reliable is the evidence? These are some of the questions considered in this book, which presents, for the first time, a synthesis of relevant research findings for each major region of the world.
Written by regional experts, the book provides a comprehensive overview of the key findings of existing studies on the linkages between environmental change and the movement of people. More and more reports on migration and the environment are being published, but the information is often scattered between countries and within regions, and it is not always clear how much of this information is based on solid research. This book brings this evidence together for the first time, highlighting innovative studies and research gaps. In doing this, the book seeks to help decision-makers draw lessons from existing studies and to identify priorities for further research.
A desire to obtain, at first hand, any possible information in regard to reminiscences of Bret Harte, Mark Twain and others of the little coterie of writers, who in the early fifties visited the mining camps of California and through stories that have become classics, played a prominent part in making "California" a synonym for romance, led to undertaking the tramp of which this brief narrative is a record. The writer met with unexpected success, having the good fortune to meet men, all over eighty years of age, who had known - in some cases intimately Bret Harte, Mark Twain, "Dan de Quille," Prentice Mulford, Bayard Taylor and Horace Greeley.
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